Section 8: Communication in the Workplace

What you’ll learn to do: Discuss the importance of technology and various methods of communication available

An icon of a computer and a cell phone.Both personal and professional communications are becoming increasingly dependent on technology. Everything from ordering dinner from your favorite Thai place to showing samples to far-away colleagues to running a credit card transaction depends on internet and phone communication.

Technology can also generate strong emotions in people: fear, frustration, fascination. In this chapter, you will learn how to calm the emotion and refocus people on the work at hand.

There are, of course, also considerations about the technology itself: Which platform or application do you choose? How do you use it? How do you make sure the conversation goes smoothly and productively for all involved?

Learning Outcomes

  • Discuss written technologies useful for communication
  • Compare and contrast common tools for audio communication
  • Compare and contrast common tools for video communication
  • Compare and contrast common tools for screen / web sharing
  • Explore multifeature online platforms / virtual office spaces

Written Communication

Technology has enriched and enhanced today’s organizational communication. For the most part, computer-aided communication obeys all the same rules as face-to-face or written communications. It has an upward, downward, or horizontal organizational direction, and it can facilitate one-on-one or group conversations. It takes the place of so many memos and letters, and it’s made communication so much faster. That said, it’s not without its drawbacks. Let’s take a look at how technology has affected today’s organizational communication.


A never-ending inbox of unread email seems to be the bane of every desk worker’s existence. Still, as a communication tool, email is brimming with benefits. It takes that time consuming written communication and adds some speed and efficiency. They can be

  • Written and edited quickly
  • Stored as drafts or as sent communications
  • Sent to one or a thousand people with a mouse click
  • Read at the receiver’s convenience
  • Distributed widely for a fraction of what it would cost to send a message in hard copy

Email programs feature “preview windows” and “preview panes” that allow receivers to get a glimpse of a message and decide if it’s worth their time to continue reading. Other bells and whistles of email applications allow users to file incoming messages into groups depending on subject or sender, and flag those messages that need attention by a certain date. As far as communications go, emails are becoming easier to manage every day.

Image of a computer with illustrations of envelopes traveling out of the computer and across the world.

Still, email has its drawbacks. New messages pop into inboxes all day and distract workers from doing other tasks that need a deeper focus. It’s not a good form of communication for messaging that goes along with company layoffs, plant closings, or any other message that requires a level of empathy and support. And there’s no ability to email non-verbal communication along with the email, which means that the receiver could find them cold and impersonal. Even when emojis are included. 🙂

Instant Messaging

Chat between three colleagues collaborating on a project. Colleague M: How are things looking with the PDF, Corey? WE'd love to have it by first thing tomorrow morning, but I understand if it's turned into a bigger project. Coworker C: Yes sorry I didn't reply. I've been on the road all day. I have it done and I'll send it as soon as I get to a WiFi connection. Coworker M: Oh, awesome! Thanks! Coworker T: Perfect! I can probably get it all wrapped up (TOC etc) tonight then. Coworker M: Amazing! Thank you both!
Figure 1. Chat between three collaborating team members

Instant messaging (IM) is becoming increasingly popular as a business communication tool, especially for more informal communication. Some examples of widely used IM services are Google Talk (commonly called Google Chat), Slack, Jabber, Spark, and many more. The advantages of IM are that messages are sent and received instantly in real time and responses are organized in a “conversation” format that supports two-way communication. Colleagues working on a shared project but separated by distance can chat just as if they are in the cubicle next door. During conference calls with external parties, internal team members can pass information “privately” to one another to comment on what is being said.

When using IM and SMS communication tools, it is important to remember that even though these messaging systems feel more informal, you are still acting in a professional setting. When chatting across an internal IM system with a coworker who is a personal friend, it’s likely acceptable for you to omit capitalization and punctuation marks. However, when talking with a coworker or manager about a company-related topic, you should to communicate in a professional manner.

While IM and SMS are great digital communication tools, there are some disadvantages to these methods. Some companies do not even allow the use of them due to security and liability concerns. Sending company information over public IM services could be risky. Also, IMs and texts create distraction for many employees, especially if engaged in a conversation with an important customer or trying to IM while driving.


Companies often provide private, organization-wide information networks that look like a website. These networks are called intranets, and they provide pages where employees can get the latest company news, view calendars of events and access important documents.

Intranet is a “pull” communication, requiring that employees go out to look at what’s being stored there. This is different from the “push” effect of email or instant messaging, where the message pops up in front of the receiver and demands to be read. This makes Intranet sites great for information that’s not timely, or, if it is, it should be accompanied by an email that points receivers to it. It also cuts down on the number of emails that need to be sent—forms and information that are normally emailed to individual employees can be found in one place.

Social Networking

When Facebook, Twitter, and Instagram took off as the world’s social media platforms of choice, it was only a matter of time before organizational communication innovators developed a tool that companies could use. Soon, platforms like Jive (a social business software) and Yammer (a private social network) made their way onto employees’ desktops.

These workplace-focused social media tools allow employees to share information the same way they do on Facebook and Instagram, but use of them is restricted to employees only. Companies can encourage their employees to share pictures and ideas with one another, and others can post comments and encouragement in the comments section below.

The advantage of this kind of communication is that it’s very organic. Employees can share things that they’re proud of and excited about, and other employees can encourage them along. Managers can use it as a vehicle to recognize great work. Many have a polling tool that allows managers to gauge the thoughts and feelings of their teams.

The disadvantage is that every employee has access to the platform, and the option to use it inappropriately is always available. Companies usually assign a communication administrator to monitor comments and quickly remove any disparaging posts that might be created by disgruntled employees.

Practice Question

The popularity of smartphones and other mobile devices have only made these technology-based methods of communications more popular and accessible and, as a result, the line between work time and off time has become less clear. Employees no longer have to be at their desks to be available. Technology has indeed shaped the way we communicate within an organization, and even how we operate.

Audio Communication

You may be asking yourself why we’re taking the time to learn how to have a phone call, but this is more nuanced than you may think. The factors to consider in deciding what method to use for an audio-only conversation can be thought of in terms of Three Cs:

  • Clarity of the line
  • Cost, especially if you are calling internationally
  • Comfort in the security of the call, especially if the information is sensitive

For most day-to-day calls, the phone on your desk or the cell phone in your pocket will work just fine. However, there are some things you should know—positive and negative—about both of those tools, and all the others available to you, in order to make good decisions about which to use.

Cell Phones and Smartphones

As we all know from the frustrations of losing a call in an elevator or discovering a dead battery just when we need our best friend the most, cell phones are great . . . except when they’re not. For business calls, cell phones are generally not preferred under normal conditions for reasons that have to do both with the technology and with the human behavior around it.

  • Calls can get dropped or one party can “lose” the other for a few seconds.
  • Lines can be noisy, especially if there’s electronic interference.
  • Phones are not always fully charged when we need them to be.
  • Calls between two or more cell phones—especially in speaker mode—can involve unwanted sound artifacts like echoes and static.
  • Since smartphones also receive texts, emails, and other notifications, chimes, whistles, and the opening bars to “Stairway to Heaven” can suddenly sound in the middle of important conversations.
  • The whole point of a “mobile” phone is that people can move around.
    • They may leave their desks and start multitasking during your call.
    • Some take important calls—even when they’re scheduled in advance—out in public where there’s noise, lots of distraction, and not much privacy.

While these negative aspects of cell phone technology mean it’s not always a great first choice, having a cell phone available can help in all kinds of unexpected situations.

  • The landline phone system goes out.
  • The internet goes out, meaning that your videoconference or VOIP call can’t happen.
  • An important participant can’t manage more sophisticated technology.
  • A participant is on the road and either must join the call on their cell or can’t join at all.

Voice Over Internet Protocol (VOIP)

A VOIP call is, at its most basic, a call in which the audio you create by talking gets converted to a digital data package, zipped over the internet, and then reassembled to come out of the speaker of the person you’re talking to—all in a nanosecond or two.

VOIP calls can be made on a bunch of different devices. Most newer “landline” phone systems are actually VOIP systems, even when the phone itself looks pretty standard. The decision to install a VOIP phone system in your workplace is probably made at the highest levels, so we won’t spend time on the advantages and disadvantages of large business systems like that.

Where you can make a choice about using VOIP is through your computer or your cell phone. Why would you go through your computer rather than using a landline (a real one, not a VOIP that looks like one) or your cell?

  • No matter where you are in the world, your calls all come from the same number. This is great if you travel a lot internationally or work from home since no one needs to know you’re away from your desk unless you choose to tell them, and they can reach you without having to keep track of multiple numbers.
  • International calling is less expensive.
  • There are lots of useful features such as being able to transfer a call from your VOIP line to your cell or laptop, easy conferencing, and call recording. Features depend on the VOIP system your company installs or the VOIP platform you find online.

Two disadvantages of VOIP systems are really the same disadvantages of any internet-based platform:

  • VOIP requires a lot of bandwidth and a high-speed internet connection. Most services state clearly on their websites what the minimum connection parameters are for VOIP calls. Check with your IT department or your internet service provider to find out what bandwidth and speed you have.
  • If your internet service goes out, your phone service does, too.
  • While most major VOIP providers are heavily invested in the security of their systems, anything online can be hacked, so think about the level of security your business requires.

Some examples of VOIP brands are Vonage, Ring Central, and Grasshopper.

Conference Phones

A phone made specifically for conference call.
Figure 1. A Conference Call Phone

A conference phone is simply a phone equipped with conferencing capabilities. This means three or more people can take part in the same conversation at once. The phone on your desk at work almost certainly has a conference feature. If you have a conference room, there may be a conference phone speaker in the middle of the table. This is designed to pick up the voice of whoever is speaking around the table.

A conference phone can be a regular landline or a VOIP line. There’s a conferencing feature on your smartphone that’s pretty easy to use, too.

The number of people you can have on a call, as well as the ease of making a call and the quality of the call will depend on the system you have. For example, an iPhone allows a call among up to five people while most VOIP systems allow you to include hundreds of people.

Conferencing Services

Another way to get a lot of people on a call is to use a conferencing service such as,, or These third-party systems work by assigning you a number and a login code. You can then invite your participants by sending them this information via email or by using the invitation functions many of these services have built in.

When the time comes for the call, people dial in using the number and login. The call begins when the host joins the call, at which point, everyone can participate.

For the most part, these calls are not all that different from any other type of conference call. However, there are a few things to note:

  • The free versions of these services may not have all the features available and/or they may limit the number of calls you can schedule per month.
  • Paid upgrades give you access to more features and more calls per month.
  • With most systems, there is a chime or electronic sound when someone joins or leaves the call.
    • This can be great if you want to keep track of who has heard which parts of the call.
    • It can also get annoying on calls involving lots of people or long, multipart calls where people can hang up once they’ve heard the pieces that are relevant to them.

Google Voice

Google Voice is a function you can access through your Google login. You can use it to consolidate all your calls (home, work, cell) under one number, and it offers features like converting your voicemails to text.

Google Voice is available only within the US, though it is a good way to make inexpensive international calls from the US.

Google Voice is separate from Google Hangouts, which we will discuss in a bit.

Practice Question

Video Communication

The tools and platforms available to you for video communication generally work in more or less the same ways, through the details of features and benefits will vary somewhat.

To conduct a call or meeting by video, first you must make sure you have the necessary equipment.

  • A camera.
    • Most newer computers (post-2010) have cameras built in. On laptops, the camera is usually in the center at the top of the screen.
    • You can also purchase a separate webcam. Webcams vary widely in price, from about $20 to a couple hundred dollars. For video conferencing under normal indoor lighting conditions, a camera from the middle of the pack will do. There are lots of online reviews of webcams to help you make a choice.
  • Audio input and output. You should make sure the computer you plan to use has a working speaker, so you can hear others, and a working microphone, so others can hear you.

Videoconferencing is generally accomplished using a third-party application such as Skype, Zoom, WebEx or video features in a multi-featured platform like Slack or Amazon Chime.

A video conference.
Figure 1. Example of an ooVoo call.

Each offers slightly different features or different ways of accessing common features. That said, when you are choosing a platform, consider the following parameters:

  • Is this a presentation mostly led by one person or a collaborative meeting? If attention is going to be on mostly one person, consider how the video windows are arranged. Figure 1 shows a collaborative meeting with all of the participants’ images the same size. Figure 2 shows a meeting in which the dark haired woman is leading and therefore has the largest picture.
  • Will the video be used only to see each other’s faces or to show products, samples, or demos? If you’re just looking at faces, most platforms will work just fine. If you are showing or demonstrating products, you may want to seek out the platform with the highest resolution image so that participants can follow without any pixelation or loss of sharpness.
  • Does the audio sync well with the image? Some older platforms can have issues with the image getting ahead of the sound. This is distracting to watch and can lead to people unintentionally interrupting or talking over each other.
  • Does it work well on tablets and smartphones as well as on computers? Can participants switch among devices if needed?
A laptop showing a video conference going on.
Figure 2. Video conferencing with a lead.

Practice Question

Screen Sharing / Web Sharing

Sometimes the most important aspect of your meeting or conversation will be the ability to see someone’s computer screen. You may deliver a presentation this way, share sales figures, play a video, or mark up design prototypes. In these instances, screen sharing is your best friend.

Several of the platforms already mentioned—WebEx, Join.Me, Slack, Google Hangouts—as well as others like GoToMeeting and Highfive offer screen sharing options.

When choosing a screen sharing platform, there are a few things to consider:

  • What is the main reason for my screen sharing?
    • If you are simply showing PowerPoint slides or going over a spreadsheet, most platforms work equally well.
    • If you intend to allow participants to mark up what you are showing or copy and paste into a shared file, you will need to make sure your platform does that. Google Hangouts and Amazon Chime are two platforms that offer these features.
  • Will more than one person share their screen? Most platforms allow you to switch among the call participants’ screens, but some make this easier than others.

Practice Question

Multi-Feature Online Platforms

So far, we’ve been seeing names like Slack, Google Hangouts, and Amazon Chime pop up in several categories. That’s because these platforms offer a variety of features in order to create a complete virtual office environment.

In addition to communication features like voice, video, and screen sharing, these applications also facilitate scheduling, instant messaging, file sharing, and collaboration. They are also continually adding and upgrading features.

Chances are, if your company or team uses a tool like this, you will have been using it since day one to communicate with your immediate coworkers. Exploring the additional tools available is a worthwhile use of your time, especially if you are primarily using technology to communicate with people who are already part of your team.

Here are a few important benefits of using one platform for all your technological communications:

  • You can search the whole environment for a specific item. For example, in Google Hangouts, if you don’t remember whether you talked with Beth about Easter promotions via email or instant message (IM), you can simply search on “beth easter,” and get results from all message channels.
  • Recording is easy. If you are editing a display design as a group, and you want to keep track of how and why you made specific decisions, you can do so, usually with one click. Recordings are then sharable.
  • Sticking with one platform for all internal/team communication and collaboration means that you and your colleagues need to learn only one piece of software and one set of commands.

If you want more information about these platforms as a whole—not just the voice, video, and screen sharing aspects—there are a lot of good videos on YouTube that go to varying levels of depth on specific features. Just be sure you watch fairly recent ones since these platforms are constantly in upgrade mode.

Practice Question

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8.3 Communicating with Technology Copyright © 2019 by Graduate Studies is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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